Question: "When is civil disobedience allowed for a
Answer: The emperor of Rome from A.D. 54 to 68 was
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, also known simply as Nero. The emperor
was not known for being a godly person and engaged in a variety of illicit acts,
homosexual marriage being among them. In 64 A.D., the great Roman fire occurred
with Nero himself being suspected of the act of arson. In his writings, the
Roman senator and historian Tacitus recorded: "To get rid of the report [that he
had started the fire], Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite
tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the
It was during the reign of Nero that the Apostle
Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans. While one might expect him to encourage
the Christians in Rome to rise up against their oppressive ruler, in the chapter
13, we find this instead:
“Every person is to be in subjection to the
governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those
which exist are established by God. Therefore whoever resists authority has
opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive
condemnation upon themselves. For rulers are not a cause of fear for good
behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is
good and you will have praise from the same; for it is a minister of God to you
for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword
for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath on the one
who practices evil. Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only
because of wrath, but also for conscience’ sake. For because of this you also
pay taxes, for rulers are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very
thing. Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax is due; custom to whom
custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor ” (Romans 13:1–7).
under the reign of a ruthless and godless emperor, Paul, writing under the
inspiration of the Holy Spirit, tells his readers to be in subjection to the
government. Moreover, he states that no authority exists other than that
established by God, and that rulers are serving God in their political office.
Peter writes nearly the same thing in one of this two New Testament
“Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every human
institution, whether to a king as the one in authority, or to governors as sent
by him for the punishment of evildoers and the praise of those who do right. For
such is the will of God that by doing right you may silence the ignorance of
foolish men. Act as free men, and do not use your freedom as a covering for
evil, but use it as bondslaves of God. Honor all people, love the brotherhood,
fear God, honor the king” (1 Peter 2:13–17).
Both Paul’s and Peter’s
teachings have led to quite a few questions from Christians where civil
disobedience is concerned. Do Paul and Peter mean that Christians are always to
submit to whatever the government commands, no matter what is asked of them?
A Brief Look at the Various Views of Civil
There are at least three general positions on the
matter of civil disobedience. The anarchist view says that a person can choose
to disobey the government whenever they like and whenever they feel they are
personally justified in doing so. Such a stance has no biblical support
whatsoever as evidenced in the writings of Paul in Romans 13.
extremist patriot says that a person should always follow and obey their country
no matter what the command. As will be shown in a moment, this view also does
not have biblical support. Moreover, it is not supported in the history of
nations either. For example, during the Nuremberg trials, the attorneys for the
war criminals attempted to use the defense that their clients were only
following the direct orders of the government and therefore could not be held
responsible for their actions. However, one of the judges dismissed their
argument with the simple question: “But gentlemen, is there not a law above our
The position the Scriptures uphold is one of biblical submission,
with a Christian being allowed to act in civil disobedience to the government if
it commands evil, such that it requires a Christian to act in a manner
that is contrary to the clear teachings and requirements of God’s
Civil Disobedience - Examples in Scripture
Exodus 1, the Egyptian Pharaoh gave the clear command to two Hebrew midwives
that they were to kill all male Jewish babies. An extreme patriot would have
carried out the government’s order, yet the Bible says the midwives disobeyed
Pharaoh and “feared God, and did not do as the king of Egypt had commanded them,
but let the boys live” (Exodus 1:17). The Bible goes on to say the midwives lied
to Pharaoh about why they were letting the children live; yet even though they
lied and disobeyed their government, “God was good to the midwives, and the
people multiplied, and became very mighty. Because the midwives feared God, He
established households for them” (Exodus 1:20–21).
In Joshua 2, Rahab
directly disobeyed a command from the king of Jericho to produce the Israelite
spies who had entered the city to gain intelligence for battle. Instead, she let
them down via a rope so they could escape. Even though Rahab had received a
clear order from the top government official, she resisted the command and was
redeemed from the city’s destruction when Joshua and the Israeli army destroyed
The book of 1 Samuel records a command given by King Saul during a
military campaign that no one could eat until Saul had won his battle with the
Philistines. However, Saul’s son Jonathan defied his father’s order and ate
honey to refresh himself from the hard battle the army had waged. When Saul
found out about it, he ordered his son to die. However, the people resisted Saul
and his command and saved Jonathan from being put to death (1 Samuel 14:45).
Another example of civil disobedience in keeping with biblical
submission is found in 1 Kings 18. That chapter briefly introduces a man named
Obadiah who “feared the Lord greatly.” When the queen Jezebel was killing God’s
prophets, Obadiah took a hundred of them and hid them from her so they could
live. Such an act was in clear defiance of the ruling authority’s wishes.
In 2 Kings, the only apparent approved revolt against a reigning
government official is recorded. Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, began to
destroy the royal offspring of the house of Judah. However, Joash the son of
Ahaziah was taken by the king’s daughter and hidden from Athaliah so that the
bloodline would be preserved. Six years later, Jehoiada gathered men around him,
declared Joash to be king, and put Athaliah to death.
Daniel records a
number of civil disobedience examples. The first is found in chapter 3 where
Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego refused to bow down to the golden idol in
disobedience to King Nebuchadnezzar’s command. The second is in chapter 6 where
Daniel defies King Darius’ decree to not pray to anyone other than the king. In
both cases, God rescued His people from the death penalty that was imposed,
signaling His approval of their actions.
In the New Testament, the book
of Acts records the civil disobedience of Peter and John towards the authorities
that were in power at the time. After Peter healed a man born lame, they were
arrested for preaching about Jesus and put in jail. The religious authorities
were determined to stop them from teaching about Jesus; however, Peter said:
“Whether it is right in the sight of God to give heed to you rather than to God,
you be the judge; for we cannot stop speaking about what we have seen and heard”
(Acts 4:19–20). Later, the rulers confronted the apostles again and reminded
them of their command to not teach about Jesus, but Peter responded, “We must
obey God rather than men” (Acts 5:29).
One last example of civil
disobedience is found in the book of Revelation where the Antichrist commands
all those who are alive during the end times to worship an image of himself. But
the apostle John who wrote Revelation states that those who become Christians at
the time will disobey the Antichrist and his government and refuse to worship
the image (Reveleation 13:15) just as Daniel’s companions violated
Nebuchadnezzar’s decree to worship his idol.
What conclusions can be drawn from the above biblical
examples? The guidelines for a Christian’s civil disobedience can be summed as
• Christians should resist a government that commands or
compels evil, and should work nonviolently within the laws of the land to
change a government that permits evil.
• Civil disobedience is
permitted when the government’s laws or commands are in direct violation of
God’s laws and commands.
• If a Christian disobeys an evil government,
unless they can flee from the government, they should accept that government’s
punishment for their actions.
• Christians are certainly permitted to work
to install new government leaders within the laws that have been established.
Lastly, Christians are commanded to pray for their leaders and for God
to intervene in His time to change any ungodly path that they are pursuing:
“First of all, then, I urge that entreaties and prayers, petitions and
thanksgivings, be made on behalf of all men, for kings and all who are in
authority, so that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and
dignity” (1 Timothy 2:1–2).
Did Jesus have long hair?
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